Brasil being the largest country in the continent of South America embraces rich diversity and culture. Out of every country in the continental premises of South America, Brasil accounts to be the only country speaking Portuguese. It covers about three time zones and has occupied a position in the list of leading economies of the world.
- Located in the eastern part of South America, it possesses a large coastline stretching 7491 kilometers in length.
- Subjugates the position of world’s fifth largest country by population (210 million) and geographical area.
- Pico da Neblina (Mist peak), Brasil's highest mountain present on the border of Venezuela was rendered undiscovered until the 1950s being shrouded by clouds.
- Categorized as world's largest exporter of coffee for more than 150 years, it facilitates dispensation of coffee since the onset of the modern era.
- Occupies the primacy of being the eighth largest economy in the world in terms of both nominal GDP and GDP.
- Predominantly western but also embraces ethnic touch as well as mixed diversity which took place in the colonial period
- The onset of architecture dates back to almost 500 years ago during the time of Pedro Cabral. Neoclassical and Gothic revival architecture adopted in the 1900s is still being practiced.
- The music contains an essence of both European and African elements. Until the 1900s, European music was the successor to the evolution of Brazilian music.
- At the beginning of 16th century, Pero Vaz da caminha, an explorer started writing about flora, fauna and led to the onset of literature. Romanticism was pioneered in Brasil and from here, spread to other parts of the world.
Pre-colonial History (1500 A.D.)
- By the time Portuguese invaded Brasil, thousands of tribes were already inhabited in the region with a majority of them being Tupi-Guarani Indians; still, the population was quite diverse.
- While exploring the seas, rivalry with the Spanish attained its roots and hence a Treaty of Tordesillas was signed which explained the demarcation of the lands belonging to Portugal and Spain.
- In 1520, Sugar cane was introduced in Brasil, 1534 led to shipment of the first husbandry while sugarcane plantations began in 1550.
- The Bandeirantes, being keen to develop inland routes to Brasil, led to the discovery of gold in the early 1600s. One-third of the 2 million slaves brought to Brasil were sent to goldfields to work.
Monarchy in Brasil
- Brasil accounted to be one of the three modern states of America to have its own Monarchy for a reign of 90 years. In 1808, after fleeing from Napoleon's invasion, monarchy rule was set up.
- King Joao VI of Portugal decided to return in 1821; Pedro attained the prestigious position and led to the onset of constitutional monarchy one year later.
- To make the country end its participation in Atlantic Slave Trade, several wars like Cisplantine, Plantine, Uruguayan and Paraguayan wars were fought.
The Old Republic (1889 – 1930)
- In 1891, constitutional Revolution took place, led to the development of the constitution.
- The central government didn't rule individually but in association with an elite group of oligarchs.
Popularization and Evolution (1940-present)
- During Estado Novo, urban planning led to evolving of agricultural aspects as well as constitutionally. Vargas who planned this was finally disposed of in 1941, Jose Linhares took over.
- The military government was set up in 1985, anybody who opposed the present government was given punishment and people weren't satisfied.
Authoritarian rule finally ended by General Ernesto Geisel, Brasil was made a democratic country by him.